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Referencing at UWS: Reference List

Reference List

The Reference List at the end of your work is a comprehensive list of all of the sources to which you have referred within the body of your work.  For each in-text citation there should be a corresponding entry in the reference list and vice versa.

According to the Cite Them Right referencing style the reference list is arranged in alphabetical order by author; if there is no author then the title should be used.  

References are not grouped together by type!  References to books, book chapters, journal articles, conference papers and websites, for example, appear in one list which is arranged alphabetically by author.

How should my references appear in the reference list?

There are strict rules that you must follow when formulating each individual reference.  The way in which a reference appears in the reference list depends on the type of material that you are referencing.  You must ensure that the elements relating to each reference appear in the exact order/format set out by the Cite Them Right Harvard style, and that you include all of the required information (if available).

Click on the 'Cite Them Right Harvard Referencing Examples' tab to see examples of the most commonly used reference types.  These include:  books, book chapters, journal articles, conference papers/proceedings, images, official publications, web pages/sites and social media.

If you require any further information on how to reference a specific format, or you would like to see a different example to the one that is provided, please refer to the Cite Them Right textbook.

If you wish to reference something that is not covered by the list of referencing examples, you should also refer to the textbook (use the index to locate the type of material that you require).

If you are still unsure please contact the Library for assistance:


Sample Reference List

Reference List

Averchenkova, A., Fankhauser, S. and Finnegan, J. J. (2021) 'The influence of climate change advisory bodies on political debates: evidence from the UK Committee on Climate Change', Climate Policy, 21(9), pp. 1218 - 1233.

BBC (2023) What is climate change? A really simple guide. Available at: (Accessed: 24 July 2023).

Budge, I. (2021) Kick-starting government action against climate change: effective political strategies. London: Routledge.

Climate Change Act, 2008 c.27. Available at: (Accessed: 14 July 2023)

Climate Change (Scotland) Act 2009 (asp 12). Available at: (Accessed: 14 July 2023)

Fox, E. and Rau, H. (2017) 'Disengaging citizens? Climate change communication and public receptivity', Irish Political Studies, 32(2), pp. 224 - 246.

Harris, P. G. (2016) Global ethics and climate change. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.

Lawrance, E., Thompson, R., Fontana, G., Jennings, N. (2021) The impact of climate change on mental health and emotional wellbeing: current evidence and implications for policy and practice. Available at: (Accessed: 24 July 2023).

Lewis, G. B., Palm, R. and Feng, B. (2019) 'Cross-national variation in determinants of climate change concern', Environmental Politics, 28(5), pp. 793 - 821.

Milman, O., Witherspoon, A., Liu, R. and Chang, A. (2021) 'The climate disaster is here', The Guardian, 14 October. Available at: (Accessed: 14 July 2023)

Monroe, M. C., Plate, R. R., Oxarart, A., Bowers, A. and Chaves, W. A. (2019) 'Identifying effective climate change education strategies: a systematic review of the research', Environmental Education Research, 25(6), pp. 791 - 812.

Office for National Statistics (2023) Climate change insights, health and well-being, UK: May 2023. Available at: (Accessed: 24 July 2023)

Scottish Government (2022) Public engagement with climate change in Scotland: 2022. Final report. Available at: (Accessed: 3 August 2023).

Terrado, M., Christel, I., Bojovic, D., Soret, A., Doblas-Reyes, F.J. (2018) 'Climate change communication and user engagement: a tool to anticipate climate change', in Leal Filho, W., Manolas, E., Azul, A., Azeiteiro, U., McGhie, H. (eds) Handbook of climate change communication: Vol 3. Climate change management. London: Springer, pp.285-302.

The Economist (2022) See what three degrees of global warming looks like. Available at: (Accessed: 1 August 2023).

The Lancet (2021) The 2021 report of the Lancet Countdown on health and climate change: code red for a healthy future. Available at: (Accessed: 24 July 2023).

World Health Organization (2021) COP26 special report on climate change and health: the health argument for climate action. Available at: (Accessed: 3 August 2023).


How to reference a book

Let's assume that you wish to refer to this book:

Climate change: a very short introduction

In-text Citation:

... (Maslin, 2021) ...


As Maslin (2021) demonstrates ...

Reference List

Maslin, M. (2021) Climate change: a very short introduction. 4th edn. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Another example of a book:

Engaged research for community resilience to climate change

In-text Citation:

... (Van Zandt et al. 2020) ...


Van Zandt et al. (2020) discuss ...

Reference List

Van Zandt, S., Masterson, J.H., Newman, G.D., Meyer, M.A. (2020) Engaged research for community resilience to climate change. Amsterdam: Elsevier.

How to reference a journal article

Let's assume that you wish to refer to the following journal article:

Journal Article

Journal Article PDF version

All of the elements required to reference this correctly according to CTR Harvard are available:

Author(s); Date of Publication, Article Title, Journal Title, Volume/Issue, Page Numbers and DOI (or URL).

The reference must follow the format given above.

In-text Citation:

... (Arabadzhyan et al. 2020) ...


... as Arabadzhyan et al. (2020) clarify

Reference List:

Arabadzhyan, A., Figini, P., Garcia, C., Gonzalez, M. M., Lam-Gonzalez, Y. E. and Leon, C. J. (2020) 'Climate change, coastal tourism, and impact chains - a literature review', Current Issues in Tourism, 24(16), pp. 2233 - 2268. Available at:


How to reference information from a website

Again, let's assume that we wish to refer to information from the following:

WHO Global Survey

In-text Citation:

... (World Health Organization, 2021) ...


The World Health Organization's (2021) report provides ...

If this is the first time that you have referred to the World Health Organization then you should spell it out in full (as in the example above).  Subsequent references to this body can then be abbreviated to 'WHO'.

Reference List:

World Health Organization (2021) 2021 WHO health and climate change global survey report. Available at: (Accessed: 14 July 2023).


How to reference an image from a book, journal article, website etc.

When citing an illustration, such as a figure, diagram, chart, graph or table, you should start with the source in which it originally appeared (this could be a book, journal article, website, official publication etc.).

In the in-text citation you should provide a page number (if available) and/or a caption that relates to the illustration that will help to identify it.  The entry in the reference list will be for the item in which the illustration originally appears.

In this example let's assume that we wish to reference a figure from a report published by the Scottish Government (available online):

Public engagement with climate change in Scotland: 2022. Final report.

We are going to use Figure 3 which can be found on page 10 of this report.

In-text citation:

As illustrated by information from a recent report (Scottish Government, 2022, p.10 Fig. 3) it can be seen that ...


The following diagram, published in a report by the Scottish Government (2022, p.10 Fig. 3), shows that ...

Reference list:

Scottish Government (2022) Public engagement with climate change in Scotland: 2022. Final report. Available at: (Accessed: 3 August 2023).

If you are including the entire figure in your own work please ensure that you include the following information:

Figure 3: In general, how often do you see or hear information about climate change from each of the following sources/channels?

This can appear either above, or below, the figure.