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Referencing at UWS: Journal, Magazine, Newspaper Articles

Journal article

Many journals have both print and online equivalents. Reference the version that you have used.

As long as the reference provides enough bibliographic information to allow it to be located by the reader then additional elements, such as [Online], database title or URL should not be included.

However, the URL or DOI must be included when referencing an article that is only available online (as in the example below).

Culloty, E., Murphy, P., Brereton, P., Suiter, J., Smeaton, A. and Zhang, D. (2019) ‘Researching visual representations of climate change’, Environmental Communication, 13(2), pp. 179-191. doi: 10.1080/17524032.2018.1533877 

Section E2.1 in CTR Harvard

Magazine article

If the article is accessed online then either the DOI or Available at: URL (Accessed: date) must be included (as in the example below).

Nunez, C. (2019) ‘What is global warming, explained’, National Geographic, (January). Available at:  (Accessed: 21 April 2020). 

Section E2.3 in CTR Harvard

Newspaper article

Where the author (byline) of a newspaper article is identified then the name should be the first element in the reference (as in the example below).  If there is no identified author then the reference should begin with the title of the newspaper in italics followed by the year of publication within round brackets.  If accessed online either the DOI or Available at: URL (Accessed: date) should be included (as in the example below).

Harvey, F. (2020) ‘Tropical forests losing their ability to absorb carbon, study finds’, The Guardian, 4 March. Available at: (Accessed: 21 April 2020). 

Section E2.4 in CTR Harvard

Press Release

Friends of the Earth Scotland (2019) UN climate negotiations confirmed for Glasgow in 2020 [Press release]. 10 September. Available at: (Accessed: 23 July 2020). 

Section E24.4 in CTR Harvard